The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India

The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India is an authority, established by the Constitution under Constitution of India Article 148, which audits all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and the state governments, including those of bodies and authorities substantially financed by the government. The CAG is also the external auditor of Government-owned corporations and condu...
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Lower Judiciary

1. Panchayat courts are the lowest courts having both civil as well as criminal jurisdictions (only for petty cases in some states). Their nomenclature in different states is Nyaya Panchayat, Panchayat Adalat, Gram Kutchery. 2. Above them are Munsif courts and above them are subordinate judges (who have unlimited jurisdiction over civil suits irrespective of amount involved and hear firs...
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High Court

There are 24 High Courts at the state and union territory level of India, which together with the Supreme Court of India at the national level, comprise the country's judicial system. Each High Court has jurisdiction over a state, a union territory or a group of states and union territories. High Courts are instituted as constitutional courts under Part VI, Chapter V, Article 214 of the Indian Co...
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Supreme Court of India – Composition, Appointments and Jurisdiction

The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review. Consisting of the Chief Justice of India and 30 other judges, it has extensive powers in the form of original, appellate and advisory jurisdictions. Composition Supreme Court of India1. Its sanctioned str...
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Municipalities

Municipalities (Part IX - Art 243)Municipal governance in India has existed since the year 1666, with the formation of Madras Municipal Corporation, and then Calcutta and Bombay Municipal Corporation in 1726. In the early part of the nineteenth century almost all towns in India had experienced some form of municipal governance.According to the 1991 Census of India, there were 3255 urban local bodi...
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Panchayat and Panchyat Raj Institutions.

Panchayats (Part IX - Art 243)A gram panchayat is the cornerstone of a local self-government organisation in India of the panchayati raj system at the village or small-town level and has a sarpanch as its elected head.The failed attempts to deal with local matters at the national level caused, in 1992, the reintroduction of panchayats for their previously used purpose as an organisation for local ...
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Jammu and Kashmir Constitutional Provision

Jammu and Kashmir is a state in northern India, it is located mostly in the Himalayan mountains, and shares borders with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south. Jammu and Kashmir has an international border with China in the north and east, and the Line of Control separates it from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and northwest...
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State Legislature or Vidhan Sabha

State LegislatureThe Legislative Assembly or the Vidhan Sabha is the lower house (in states with bicameral) or the sole house (in unicameral states) of the state legislature in the different States of India. The same name is also used for the lower house of the legislatures for two of the Union Territories, i.e., Delhi and Puducherry. The upper house in the seven states with a bicameral legislatur...
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Governor – power and duties

In India, a governor is the constitutional head of each of the twenty-nine states. The governor is appointed by the President of India for a term of five years, and holds office at the President's pleasure. The governor is de jure head of the state government; all its executive actions are taken in the governor's name. However, the governor must act on the advice of the popularly elected council o...
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Emergency Provision

HoP = House of People or Lok SabhaCoS = Council of State of Rajya SabhaCoM = Council of MnisterThe term Emergency is not described in constitution or any statue but the proclaimation of emergency has been provided under the Constitution of India. Proclamation, continuation, discontinuationPresident and cabinet provisions: (a) Art 352 emergency can be proclaimed even b...
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